Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Lyme disease is becoming a more prominent and talked about issue, and for good reason. As the years progress, emerging strains of Lyme disease-causing bacteria are being discovered. This leads to a higher risk of encountering and developing the illness. When caught in the infection’s earlier stages, patients tend to respond well to antibiotic treatments such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime.

However, not everyone is lucky enough to remove the tick before the 36–48 hour transmission period. In fact, nymphs (immature ticks) often go undetected as they can be smaller than a pinhead. In these unfortunate cases, long-term Lyme disease may become a higher possibility.

“An estimated 300,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed each year with Lyme disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of those ideally diagnosed and treated, studies have reported a wide range (5 to 30 percent) of the proportion that goes on to experience post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS).”1

Climate change is a large reason as to why there are increasing tick populations and ticks found in non-endemic areas. More animals are migrating to places where climates better support their life cycles. Ticks hitch rides onto these animals and get a free and easy trip to any destination they want. This can create populations of ticks that learn to adapt to hotter or colder climates. In return, this creates a more wide spread issue for people that enjoy nature.

Symptoms of PTLDS include but are not limited to:

Arthritis, fatigue, headaches, short-term memory issues, numbness, Bells’ Palsy (facial drooping), heart issues (beating too fast or too slowly, and depression.

Treatment for PTLDS is often very difficult for physicians, considering there is a great debate on whether there is an active infection or not. There are multiple syndromes that fall under the umbrella of the post effects of having Lyme disease. They include:

Post-infectious Lyme arthritis, post-treatment LD syndrome, autoimmune joint disease, and autoimmune neurological disease.

Antibiotics are the main treatments that we currently use in the medical field to combat the lingering effects of the illness. However, in a lot of cases, patients stop responding to the oral antibiotics and intravenously administering (IV) them comes into play.

“Depending on the disease manifestation, the infection can usually be treated successfully with 2–4 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. However, arthritis, a late disease manifestation, can be more difficult to treat. We start with oral antibiotic therapy, usually doxycycline, for 30 days. If patients have minimal or no response, we treat with IV antibiotics, usually ceftriaxone, for another month, and in most patients, the arthritis improves. One theory to explain this finding is that tendons, a relatively avascular niche in and around affected joints, may be infected, and better tissue penetration with IV antibiotics is necessary for successful treatment.”2

There is a debate on whether this is beneficial considering the amount of antibiotic resistance we are experiencing in the modern age. The debate goes even further as some physicians and health boards believe the symptoms might be psychological or in response to another undiagnosed illness, which is why traditional antibiotic treatments don’t always show significant improvements for those patients affected.

Lyme disease is often referred to as, “The Great Imitator,” so physicians misdiagnosing complex sets of symptoms as Lyme disease is possible. Borrelia burgdorferi, is able to undergo morphological changes from a mobile spirochete to a non-mobile sphere. This could be one explanation as to why PTLDS patients test negative for the disease even though they exhibit obvious symptoms.

“The spheres, which appear to be more resistant to unfavorable conditions and exhibit reduced immune reactivity when compared to spirochetes, might allow the B. burgdorferi to escape complete clearance and possibly ensure long-term survival in the host.”3

There are numerous reasons why some people experience PTLDS. One theory states that Lyme disease causes residual damage to tissues and nerves. Even when an active infection has cleared up with antibiotics it can take very long for those nerves to heal back to their original states. Another theory explains how our bodies have a strong auto-immune response to the bacteria. This can cause the body to continually attack healthy cells months after the onset of an infection.

One thing people are often oblivious to is that when they are bitten by a tick and are diagnosed with Lyme disease they could have a co-infection. Co-infections can be very complicated to treat, especially if your physician is unaware you are suffering from one. It’s important to eliminate all aspects of tick-borne illnesses and not just Lyme disease when bitten by a tick.

“In a comprehensive review of 61 different published reports, Nieto and Foley found that 2 to 5 percent of young nymphal I. Scapularis ticks were reported to be co-infected with more than one microbe. Adult tick co-infection rates with B. burgdorferi varied widely between 1 to 28 percent across the reports analyzed.”4

A very interesting theory as to why people experience Lyme disease symptoms is explained by Dr. Ettinger in his research. His theory is based around the fact that the tell-tale signs of Lyme disease are not generated by the bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Instead, he believes the symptoms can be caused by the reactivation of one or more herpes virus within the nervous system. Herpesviridae is a large group of viruses with six common variants. The issues related to these variants can range in their severities from a common cold sore to encephalitis.

Herpes virus is known for its mechanisms that allow it to stay dormant in a persons immune system for years at a time. Herpes virus reactivates when the immune system is under some form of stress. A Borrelia burgdorferi encounter with our immune system or another pathogen from a tick can cause this reactivation. According to the World Health Organization, 67% of the population under the age of 50 have HSV-1.

More research needs to be done to investigate these reasons, as it could be extremely beneficial not only to those who are suffering from PTLDS, but also in hopes of stopping the illness from making it into our systems in the first place. Regardless of your particular stance, it is apparent that as the number of Lyme infections increases, the number of cases of PTLDS will grow with it. It’s important to find better preventative measures to aid in the fight against the disease so that people won’t have to struggle with finding long-term treatment options for a debilitating disease.

SOURCES:

1 Rebman, Alison W, and John N Aucott. “Post-treatment Lyme Disease as a Model for Persistent Symptoms in Lyme Disease.” Frontiers in medicine vol. 7 57. 25 Feb. 2020, doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00057

2 J Clin Invest. 2020;130(5):2148-2151. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI138062.

3 Al-Robaiy, Samiya et al. “Metamorphosis of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms–RNA, lipid and protein composition in context with the spirochetes’ shape.” Journal of basic microbiology vol. 50 Suppl 1 (2010): S5-17.

4Kulkarni, Manisha A et al. “Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.” Emerging microbes & infections vol. 4,6 e33. 10 Jun. 2015, doi:10.1038/emi.2015.33

The Silent Tick-Borne Illness: Alpha-Gal

Alpha-gal syndrome or mammalian meat allergy often goes unnoticed within people harboring the illness, but it can have severe or even fatal symptoms once triggered. It is prompted by an allergic reaction to galactose-α-1,3-galactose, which is a carbohydrate that is prevalent in mammals and livestock.

Alpha-gal syndrome was first discovered because of reactions experienced by patients receiving the cancer drug Cetuximab. Eventually, researches found a link between the reactions experienced by those being given Cetuximab and those who had recently experienced a tick bite from the A. americanum (lone star tick).

Currently, the illness is considered worldwide as cases ranging from Asia to Australia have been documented. Some common tick species associated with carrying and transmitting Alpha-gal are: A. americanum (lone star tick), Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick), Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick), and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Asian longhorned tick).

Alpha-gal is often referred to as being delayed because reactions can occur 3-6 hours after eating mammalian meat products. One thing to note is that you don’t need to consume meat in order to experience the life-threatening effects of the illness. If you suffer from cardiac issues and need surgery, certain medical products related to cardiology express alpha-gal on them.

Some symptoms that are often associated with alpha-gal are hives, swelling of the lips, face and tongue, shortness of breath, headaches, and anaphylaxis. Treatment usually includes using an epinephrine injector (EpiPen) and keeping one on you for possible future reactions.

The mechanism behind how the tick causes this reaction is unclear. However, like in many cases of tick transmission, the saliva plays an important role. Alpha-gal is present in a ticks saliva, so when blood-feeding occurs when attached to a human it gets passed onto the host. How and why ticks have alpha-gal antigens in their saliva is still in question. There are some interesting theories explaining this including, ticks being able to naturally synthesize the carbohydrate, or microbial symbionts in the ticks saliva.

A new challenge in regards to dealing with ticks revolves around the effects of climate change. There are several tick-borne illnesses that have been kept at a “rare” standing. Unfortunately, we may see a rise in these cases because of how easily ticks are able to shift continents.

Sources:

Steinke, John W et al. “The alpha-gal story: lessons learned from connecting the dots.” The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology vol. 135,3 (2015): 589-96; quiz 597. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.1947

Young, Ian et al. “Tick exposures and alpha-gal syndrome: A systematic review of the evidence.” Ticks and tick-borne diseases vol. 12,3 (2021): 101674. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101674

The Powassan Virus: An Emerging North Eastern Arbovirus

The Powassan virus has been gaining traction lately, and for a good reason. Within the last 20 years reported cases of the virus have increased dramatically. Current data suggests over a 300% increase within the last five years. Some reasons for this can be noted by antigenic drift/shift (genetic mutations/influenza mutations) and the changes we are seeing due to climate change.

The increase in our warmer seasons plays a huge role in the expanding tick populations. More birds are migrating, therefore, more ticks are able to reach a broader spectrum of areas. Although Powassan virus is endemic to North America, it would not be surprising to see increasing cases on the opposite coast.

Powassan is an arbovirus, meaning it is transmitted by arthropods (insects). It is considered one of the many flaviviruses because of its encephalitis/hemorrhagic symptoms. You might be familiar with other flaviviruses such as, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Zika Virus. The difference is these are transmitted by mosquitoes while the Powassan is noted to be only transmitted by ticks.

Its interesting name originates from Powassan, Ontario where in 1958, a young male who is considered the index case, died of severe complications from being bit by an infected tick. With roughly over 100 cases reported thus far, it’s still considered rare. There are two lineages that have been identified:

⦁ Lineage 1: carried by the Ixodes cookei (groundhog tick) or Ixodes marxi
⦁ Lineage 2: carried by the Ixodes scapularis (deer tick.)

The Ixodes species usually maintains its life cycle through several small animals including, woodchucks, squirrels, skunks, and white-footed mice. Although wildlife is a reservoir and act as vectors for the Powassan virus, there is no evidence of animal-to-human transmission documented. Tick-to-human transmission is currently the method that is documented and proven.

Lyme disease is considered to be one of the more serious and most studied illnesses associated with ticks. Taking into account the very short transmission rate of only 15 minutes for the Powassan virus and the rapid onset of the severe symptoms it’s clear we should be focusing our attention on both. Powassan is one of the least studied Flaviviruses, and this could be dangerous if the numbers continue to increase, as methods for treatment are quite limited at this time.

During the attachment phase the tick will use its saliva as a local anesthetic (numbing agent) for the skin. After this, the saliva is shown to have down-regulation properties, meaning it can freely and safely transmit the virus without your immune system reacting to its presence. Concluding this process, the incubation period can be anywhere from a week to over a month long.

Studies that were concluded show that mice that had been injected with the virus without the tick saliva were able to survive the virus and its effects, while those injected with the saliva had a high mortality rate. This might be very telling of how powerful and important the immune-suppressant nature of its saliva can be.

If you manage to survive the virus and its acute and severe complications, you are then faced with a high probability of severe long-term neurological sequelae (long-term side effects).

In regards to symptoms, those most often associated with Powasson virus include:
⦁ Fever
⦁ Headache
⦁ Vomiting
⦁ Muscle stiffness (usually neck)
⦁ Encephalitis (swelling of the brain)
⦁ Meningitis (swelling of membranes surrounding the brain and spinal chord)
⦁ Paralysis
⦁ Aphasia (loss of speech ability)

Long term effects can occur in roughly 50% of cases. The majority of problems are neurological including memory loss, chronic headaches, and speech issues.

There have been cases documented where co-infections have occurred, mainly with Borrelia bacteria (a cause of Lyme disease). Ticks are vectors for multiple pathogens/viruses. In the case of a co-infection, serious aggression is required for medical treatment. Often, this can be much longer than typical treatment for a single tick-borne illness.

Because of its rarity Powasson virus is often not tested when it comes to tick-borne illnesses. In return, this can lead to very damaging effects on a patient due to the delayed treatment. At the moment, the main methods for diagnosing the virus rely on serological testing. This involves measuring the patients antibody responses to the virus. IgG and IgM are antibodies that are specific for a positive Powassan diagnosis.

Treatment for the illness is not solid. No approved vaccine or medications are currently available. The main treatments rely on reducing brain swelling and keeping the body hydrated during the process. In some cases patients that were administered Methylprednisolone had significant improvements. Further evidence is needed to conclude if this is a feasible treatment

Sources:
Fatmi, Syed Soheb et al. “Powassan Virus-A New Reemerging Tick-Borne Disease.” Frontiers in public health vol. 5 342. 12 Dec. 2017, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2017.00342


El Khoury, Marc Y et al. “Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A.” Emerging infectious diseases vol. 19,12 (2013): 1926-33. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130903


Smith, Kathryn et al. “Powassan Virus and Other Arthropod-Borne Viruses in Wildlife and Ticks in Ontario, Canada.” The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene vol. 99,2 (2018): 458-465. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.18-0098

Mother issues warning after Mississippi girl diagnosed with ‘tick paralysis’ – WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – Google News
Mother issues warning after Mississippi girl diagnosed with ‘tick paralysis’ – WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale

WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale

Mother issues warning after Mississippi girl diagnosed with 'tick paralysis'
WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale
GRENADA, Miss. (WSVN) — A mother in Mississippi is warning parents after her 5-year-old daughter's close call after a tick bite. The mother of little Kailyn Kirk says when her daughter woke up Wednesday morning, she said she couldn't feel her legs.
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Afraid of ticks, Lyme disease in Upstate NY? We’ll take questions on Facebook
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A Lyme vaccine for humans is getting closer, says French biotech firm – Concord Monitor

Concord Monitor

A Lyme vaccine for humans is getting closer, says French biotech firm
Concord Monitor
Lyme is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere, with about 300,000 cases reported to the CDC each year and another 200,000 seen in Europe. Even if an effective and cheap Lyme vaccine is developed, however, ticks will still be a …

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Laboratory Equipment

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Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Mom discovers son’s tick-borne illness – Today.com

Today.com

Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Mom discovers son's tick-borne illness
Today.com
Her sister encouraged her to do more research and urge the doctor and medical team to conduct a tick panel, or a blood test that can help identify tick-borne illnesses. … This is particularly true for the Lyme disease tick vector (the black-legged

Tick-Borne Diseases On The Rise In Minnesota: CDC – Patch.com

Patch.com

Tick-Borne Diseases On The Rise In Minnesota: CDC
Patch.com
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Ticks, Lyme disease cases continue to rise in Greene County
Other counties in the region — Fayette, Washington and Westmoreland — also saw an increase in reported Lyme disease cases during that period. Data for 2017 has yet to be released. “Subjectively, I’d say there continues to be more tick-borne …

Tracking The Rise In Mosquito and Tick-Borne Diseases
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Tick-borne illnesses, including Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, are rising in Alabama
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Legislation strengthens NY response to tick-borne diseases – Wellsville Daily Reporter

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Legislation strengthens NY response to tick-borne diseases – Wellsville Daily Reporter

Wellsville Daily Reporter

Legislation strengthens NY response to tick-borne diseases
Wellsville Daily Reporter
ALBANY — The Senate Monday approved legislation co-sponsored by Senator Tom O'Mara (R,C,I-Big Flats), a member of the Senate Task Force on Lyme and Tick-Borne Diseases (TBDs), to strengthen New York State's response to the rise of these …
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Find a tick? This New Hampshire researchers wants it – Concord Monitor

Concord Monitor

Find a tick? This New Hampshire researchers wants it
Concord Monitor
Following analysis about what diseases each tick is carrying, the goal is to create information that is time-and-place-specific about the risk of Lyme and other vector-borne diseases. … She'd like to develop a model for gathering and disseminating

In a battle of human versus tick, I’m firing up a homemade weapon – the tick tube – Concord Monitor

Concord Monitor

In a battle of human versus tick, I'm firing up a homemade weapon – the tick tube
Concord Monitor
My most recent attempt to fight the scourge of tick-borne disease felt like Easter morning. Not because I was dressed up and going to church, but because my wife and I were hiding funny-looking objects all around the yard, wondering if we'd remember

New app helps researchers track ticks – Channel3000.com – WISC-TV3

Channel3000.com – WISC-TV3

New app helps researchers track ticks
Channel3000.com – WISC-TV3
Researchers hope that this information will help them learn more about where and when people encounter ticks, with the ultimate goal of discovering how to limit people's exposure to tick-borne illnesses like Lyme disease. In addition, the app informs

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Take precautions, but don’t freak out: tick-borne diseases rare in Washington state
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Tick-borne diseases are on the rise and are part of a growing health problem, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Not all ticks carry the same diseases, but Lyme disease is the most common. In Texas, there were 165 reported cases …

Ticks, Lyme disease cases continue to rise locally

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – BingNews
Ticks, Lyme disease cases continue to rise locally
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Tick season brings dangers – be prepared – Branson Tri-Lakes news

Branson Tri-Lakes news

Tick season brings dangers – be prepared
Branson Tri-Lakes news
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Lyme disease is on the rise in US, but what about ticks in Oregon? – OregonLive.com

OregonLive.com

Lyme disease is on the rise in US, but what about ticks in Oregon?
OregonLive.com
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How Mass. could disrupt Lyme disease research – The Boston Globe

The Boston Globe

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The Boston Globe
Sunny weather? It's here. Crowded beaches? Check. Now, for what has lately become the third sure sign of New England summer: Killjoy warnings from health officials about the risk of Lyme disease, the tick-borne malady that may cause fatigue, headaches, …

Here’s Why Lyme Disease Keeps Spreading in the US – Healthline

Healthline

Here's Why Lyme Disease Keeps Spreading in the US
Healthline
They're being sent by public health officers from across the state who want to know whether Lyme disease is present in their towns, and how fast it's spreading. For scientists at the nearly 150-year-old station, tick-borne illnesses are nothing new
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Across the US, reports of tick-borne illness are rising. Here’s what’s happening in Idaho. – Idaho Statesman

Idaho Statesman

Across the US, reports of tick-borne illness are rising. Here's what's happening in Idaho.
Idaho Statesman
However, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare data show that reports of tick-borne diseases remain incredibly low in our state, bucking the national trend. Between … Lyme disease, perhaps the best-known disease carried by ticks, isn't an issue here.

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Lyme, tick-borne diseases exploding in NJ: Smith – Asbury Park Press

Asbury Park Press

Lyme, tick-borne diseases exploding in NJ: Smith
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Uptick of Lyme disease observed nationally and in New Jersey – NJTV News

NJTV News

Uptick of Lyme disease observed nationally and in New Jersey
NJTV News
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Tick/Lyme diseases combating efforts get new New York push – Poughkeepsie Journal

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County warns against ticks, Lyme disease

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County warns against ticks, Lyme disease
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Locals Notice More Ticks; Many Northern Michigan Counties Have Known Risk of Lyme Disease
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Heading outdoors? Here’s how to protect yourself from a full bloom of mosquitoes and ticks in Wisconsin – Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Heading outdoors? Here's how to protect yourself from a full bloom of mosquitoes and ticks in Wisconsin
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
May and June usually are the peak of tick season in the state, Liesch said. "Mosquitoes and ticks can spread many illnesses, like Lyme disease and West Nile Virus, that can make you and your family sick," state health officials said in "Enjoy the

Valneva seeking partner for $350M Lyme disease vaccine effort, prepping for phase 2 – FiercePharma

FiercePharma

Valneva seeking partner for $350M Lyme disease vaccine effort, prepping for phase 2
FiercePharma
Lyme is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere, with about 300,000 cases reported to the U.S. CDC each year and another 200,000 seen in Europe. Valneva argues that the real number could be bigger because many infections go …

Lyme Tick Prevention Class held at the Farmers Market – The Tomahawk

The Tomahawk

Lyme Tick Prevention Class held at the Farmers Market
The Tomahawk
To that end, the Lyme Tick Prevention Class will start at 11:30 am at the breakfast tent located next to the Market Manager's tent. Attendees will also learn other tick avoidance tricks. The JCFM is dedicated to promoting health and wellness in the

Number of cases of tick-borne diseases on rise in NH

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – BingNews
Number of cases of tick-borne diseases on rise in NH
Remove ticks promptly using tweezers. Tick removal within 36 hours of attachment can prevent Lyme disease, but transmission of other tick-borne diseases can occur with shorter periods of attachment time. — Monitor for signs and symptoms of tick-borne …

Pets need protection from Lyme disease, other tick-borne illnesses, too
A local veterinarian suggests that it’s important for dog owners to spend a few minutes every day to check through your dog’s fur for pesky ticks and other insects that may prove to be fatal if the pests go undetected. Dr. Rachel Ashley, a member of …

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – Google News
They may be small, but ticks can punch a dangerous punch – Steamboat Pilot and Today

Steamboat Pilot and Today

They may be small, but ticks can punch a dangerous punch
Steamboat Pilot and Today
Though the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has yet to document a case of a person getting Lyme disease from a tick within Colorado, dogs have been infected with the disease. Tick-borne illnesses often go undiagnosed. "Symptoms may be …

A Lyme disease vaccine has been developed – Harper’s Bazaar – HarpersBAZAAR.co.uk

HarpersBAZAAR.co.uk

A Lyme disease vaccine has been developed – Harper's Bazaar
HarpersBAZAAR.co.uk
The first vaccination to prevent people from catching Lyme disease has been developed in the UK. Manufactured by pharmaceutical group Valneva, the vaccine …
World's first global vaccine for Lyme disease developed as disease …Telegraph.co.uk

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Amedore announces legislation to combat Lyme, tick-borne diseases – Hudson Valley 360

Hudson Valley 360

Amedore announces legislation to combat Lyme, tick-borne diseases
Hudson Valley 360
ALBANY — State Sen. George Amedore announced recently that the state senate has passed a package of legislation aimed at combatting Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Amedore is a member of the state senate's Task Force on Lyme and …
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IU study: We have more ticks here that carry Lyme disease than thought – Indianapolis Star

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – Google News
IU study: We have more ticks here that carry Lyme disease than thought – Indianapolis Star

Indianapolis Star

IU study: We have more ticks here that carry Lyme disease than thought
Indianapolis Star
CDC says tick-borne illnesses have now TRIPLED. … An Indiana University program that monitors disease-carrying pests has found many more deer ticks that carry Lyme disease than previously thought to exist in the southern and central parts of the state.
UNL Entomologist Warns of Tick-Borne Diseases91.5 KIOS-FM
Wisconsin's Annual Lyme Disease Forecast Is Not A Simple MatterWisContext
County issues advisory on ticks, Lyme diseaseEvening Observer
WCPO –Drgnews –Sioux Falls Argus Leader
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Select Board briefed on genetically-altered mice plan – Nantucket Island Inquirer

Select Board briefed on genetically-altered mice plan
Nantucket Island Inquirer
The white-footed mouse is considered the largest reservoir of tick-borne diseases on the island. Ticks, even in their larval stage, feed on the mice that carry Lyme disease. The ticks themselves are then infected and pass the disease on to whatever

CDC issues warning about tick borne-illnesses – FOX Carolina

FOX Carolina

CDC issues warning about tick borneillnesses
FOX Carolina
"Their biggest concerns definitely are asking us about what tick-borne disease will we see in the Southeast," he said. Those diseases are Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. "Immature ticks are very small," Shrum said. Riggins is watching to …

Tick season: What to know about ticks, diseases and how to remove … – USA TODAY

tick, tick diseases, tickbourne, lyme – BingNews
County issues advisory on ticks, Lyme disease
… Health conducts annual tick surveillance to monitor for tick-borne pathogens. Results from 2017 showed that in specific areas of Chautauqua County, the rate of ticks infected with Lyme disease bacteria is as high as 54 percent. In some cases, the …

Tick season: What you need to know about ticks, diseases they cause and how to remove them safely
CDC says tick-borne illnesses have now TRIPLED. Are you removing ticks correctly? Here’s everything you need to know about ticks and how you can combat Lyme disease. Just the FAQs This undated photo provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and …

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases Are on the Rise
Since the 1990s, for example, the number of U.S. counties where Lyme disease has been reported has increased … The bad news is that, like virtually all other tick-borne diseases, it may well have the ability to flare up like Kilauea.